How will changes in the labor force affect HRM practices for the next decade?
The minorities women (especially married women), and disabled workers will continue to play an important role in the increasingly diverse work force. Firms will have to be equipped to handle them. If they are substantially revised, as seems possible, then HRM practices will have to be modified to meet the new requirements.
The firms will have to provide basic skills training for a growing percentage of its work force. Diversity training should be provided for managers to enable them to supervise an increasingly diverse workforce.
2. Describe the major regulations governing HRM practices.
The major regulations governing HRM practices are Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act which prohibit discrimination in employment (recruitment, hiring, discharge, layoffs, discipline, promotion, compensation, and access to training) based on race, sex, color, national origin, and religion and its 1991 amendment which provided remedies for intentional discrimination.
when considering HRM practices are the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 that prohibit employment discrimination against people with disabilities (including recovering alcoholics or drug abusers, cancer patients in remission, and AIDS victims), and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 .
3. Define job analysis. Why is job analysis relevant to each of the six key HRM activities discussed in the chapter (i.e., planning, staffing, training, performance appraisal, reward systems, and labor relations)?
A job analysis deals with management and analysis of Jobs. The first is the job description that identifies the essential tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the position. The second is the job specification that describes the skills, knowledge, abilities, and other characteristics needed to perform the job.
Job analysis is important in that it provides the necessary information underlying the six key HRM activities: recruitment, selection, training, and appraisal, reward systems, and out placing. Proper job analysis is critical in order to create an accurate job description which is used to guide each of these key activities.
4. What are the various methods for recruiting employees? Why are some better than others? In what sense are they better?
Recruitment is the development of a pool of applicants for a job. It can be divided into two categories: internal and external recruiting.
Internal recruiting involves considering current employees for the available position. The chief advantages of internal recruiting are that:
- It costs far less to identify internal candidates.
- The employer already knows the individuals and is thus better able to evaluate them.
- Promoting internal candidates provides a source of motivation in that employees see upward mobility as a reward for hard, effective work.
There are two disadvantages:
- Internal recruiting may provide a limited applicant pool.
- Conducting an internal search and then awarding the position to an external candidate may result in the de-motivation of the internal candidate(s) who may feel that they were qualified for the position.
External recruiting tends to be far more expensive where we have to have a pool of talent and search within them. However, it has the advantage that it brings in “new blood” and can be a source of innovation, new ideas, fresh perspectives, etc. The major problem with external recruiting is that it is difficult to evaluate as they have very less work experience.
Both are better as in external we can have new range of people with new and unique ideas and in internal recruiting we would have people with same orthodox work style.
5. What is a test? Give some examples of tests used by employers.
A test is a critical evaluation of the candidate and normally falls into one of four classes.
- Performance tests – It is used to measure the applicant’s skills related to a specific job.
- Cognitive tests – Test are held to measure the various intellectual skills of the candidate.
- Integrity tests – Integrity test is used to measure the candidate’s honesty or work dedication and not to fallacy.
- Drug screening tests – used to test for the presence of drugs.
6. What purpose does performance appraisal serve? Why are there so many different methods of appraisal?
Performance appraisal is an assessment of the employee’s performance over a time span and used to see them advancement he has made to benefit the company.
- Information for making decisions with regard to increases in the individual’s salary, increment, suitability for promotion or, benefit to company
- A Feedback to the employee to enhance plan career growth and development.
- The Proof documentation is need to keep track of the person’s performance which can be used to support the firm’s human resource decisions if an employee sues the company.
A wide range of different type of analysis is used for analysis.
- Production data – units produced, sales volume, etc.
- Personnel data – turnover, absenteeism, accident rates, moral behavior.
- Management by objectives (MBO) data –Performance goals set by company to be completed by the employee.
- Judgmental data – evaluations and goals to be checked by the evaluator.
In addition, an individual can be measured isn’t a number of different scales.
- Trait scales – measurement of the individual’s leadership, attitudes, etc. are measured against a numeric scale.
- Behavioral scales – Measure of behavioral skills like professionalism.
- Comparative scales – Between two employees comparisons are made to make the correct choice of Appraisal
7. What are some of the key ideas to remember when conducting a performance interview?
- Summarize the employee’s performance over time span
- Describe the expectations and standards needed.
- Determine the cause(s) of the below standard performance.
- Discuss solutions to the problem(s).
- Agree on a timetable for improvement.
- Document the meeting
- Have the employee sign the document to show aftereffects of the Decision taken
On the other hand, if the employee is doing a good or excellent job then you should:
- Summarize the employee’s performance in which he has excelled
- Explain why the employee’s work is important to the organization.
- Lauding the employee for doing a good job.
- Raise any issues, such as areas for improvement.
8. How would you define an effective reward system? What role do benefits serve in a reward system?
An effective reward system has two main Benefits. First, it serves to attract, motivate, and retain personnel and it can retain employee so that they feel happy to work with.
Benefits are the non-salary aspects of the reward system Paid vacations, Pensions plans, medical and dental insurance, educational support (for both the employee and dependents),. These benefits can represent a substantial incentive to employees.
9. Why do workers join unions? What implications would this have for the organization that wishes to remain non-union?
As unity is strength , Workers join unions because they see the relationship between management and its employees as being an adversarial one. They see an advantage in having an organization (representing a large number of individuals) negotiate with management on their behalf. Union can talk to the management and can give details about problem the workers are facing
If an employer wishes to remain non-union, it must prove to its work force that has the best interests of its employees at heart. Good work culture must be availed in the company
10. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of collective bargaining for the employer and the employee.
The major advantage for both the employer and the employee is the ability to explore is to l have a mutual understanding for each other during critical. After the union contract has been negotiated, the document deals with rules ,procedures and expectations.
The major drawback that deals is with agendas and to maintain good work culture. The main advantage is that workers will deal with this and work according to do my homework.